Selected Moments of the 20th Century

A work in progress edited by Daniel Schugurensky

Department of Adult Education and Counselling Psychology,
The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE/UT)

00s   10s   20s   30s   40s   50s   60s   70s   80s   90s

This is a site about education during the 20th century, organized by decades. It includes short descriptions of 'educational episodes' that took place in that period. The episode in question could be a policy, a court case, a piece of legislation, a scholarly article, a theory, a project, a research report, an incident, a book, a speech, an empirical finding, a tragedy, an acomplishment, a failure, a conference, the opening or a closure of an institution, a film, an anecdote, or anything, big or small, that tells us something about education theory, policy, politics, research or practice during the last century. Arguably, some of these episodes have been more historically significant or influential than others, and some may be more well-known than others, but each one uncovers a piece of that immense puzzle that was 20th century education. Education is understood here in its broadest sense, and not only as schooling. Although its current emphasis is on North American educational developments, there is an ongoing effort to include more international content.

Most entries have been written especially for this site (many of them by education students), although some consist of links to other webpages. Cross references are used to show connections between different moments. New entries are added regularly. If you would like to submit an entry, make a comment to improve this site, or suggest a link to a webpage to be added to this compilation, please send it to:




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Other History of Education Sites:

The Homeroom - British Columbia's history of education web site           UNESCO milestones in education 

History of American Education (U.S. education)                                       South African history of education



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How to cite a moment


Some significant events in this period
1900 Henry Barnard, advocate of common schools, dies in poverty at age 89

1900 Learning about birds instead of killing them: Audubon Society replaces Christmas Side Hunt with Christmas Bird Count

1900 John Ruskin, a pioneer in art education, dies in England at age 81
1900 Umeko Tsuda founds Joshi Eigaku Juku (currently Tsuda College) to provide Japanese women with opportunities to pursue higher education
1900 Professor Edward Ross fired from Stanford University over a disagreement with Jane Stanford
1901 Margaret Haley becomes the first woman and first teacher to speak at the NEA
1901 Anarchist teacher Francisco Ferrer opens Modern School in Barcelona
1901 Rabindranath Tagore starts school combining Western and Indian philosophies
1901 Joliet Junior, the First Independent Public Junior College
1901 Francis W. Parker progressive school opens  
1901 Henry Dunant, a school dropout, is awarded the first Nobel Peace Prize
1902 Learning together without teachers: Oscar Olsson and the study circles
1902 Émile Durkheim gives opening lecture on "Pédagogie et sociologie" in the course "L'Education morale"
1902 Nonconformists jailed for opposing Education Act and refusing to pay school taxes 
1903 W.E.B. Du Bois criticizes Booker T. Washington
1903 Mother Jones leads demonstration against child labour, says working children belong in schools
1903 Rowntree and Binns discuss democratic and autocratic methods in The History of Adult Schools
1903 Marie Curie first woman to receive doctorate in France  
1903 Albert Mansbridge founds the Workers' Educational Association (WEA)
1903 Woodbrooke Quaker Study Centre opens in the UK

1903 Peace educator Tsunesaburo Makiguchi publishes A Geography of Human Life

1904 German board of education appoints commission to investigate Clever Hans and math teacher Von Osten

1904 Feminist, pacifist and anarchist teacher María Lacerda de Moura founds Escola Normal de Barbacena in Brazil

1904 Circuit Chautauqua, innovative adult education initiative promoting reflection and discussion on political, social and cultural issues

1904 Margaret Haley calls for teachers to organize
1904 First cohort of high school students graduate from Felix Adler's Ethical Culture School
1904 Pavlov receives Nobel Prize, opens route for conditioning in education
1904 Helen Keller becomes the first blind-deaf person to graduate from college  
1904 Dewey leaves the Chicago Laboratory school and goes to Columbia University
1904 Stanley Hall publishes Adolescence
1904 "Enter to learn; depart to serve": Mary McLeod Bethune opens Daytona School for Negro Girls
1905 Upton Sinclair starts the Intercollegiate Socialist Society
1905 After over twenty years of existence, the 'Flying University' of Poland is legalized
1905 Tsarist government closes universities in Russia
1905 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon develop test to determine mental age of children
1905 William Taylor, 13, dies from school hazing
1906 McMillan sisters’ campaign prevails: Provision of School Meals Act is passed

1906 Teacher and social activist Susan Anthony dies in Rochester, NY, at age 86

1907 Maria Montessori opens the first Casa dei Bambini (Children's house)
1907 Marietta Johnson launches the School of Organic Education In Fairhope, Alabama
1907 The "Wisconsin Idea" brings the university to the community
1907 Olive Decroly opens the Ecole de l'Ermitage
1907 Working People's College in the USA
1907 Paul Natorp and social pedagogy
1907 In an overflowing classroom, William James gives his last lecture at Harvard University
1908 Edmund Burke Huey publishes The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading, a pioneering work on oral language and early childhood literacy education at home
1908 Berea College v. Commonwealth of Kentucky
1908 Robert Baden-Powell starts world scouting movement
1909 Ella Flagg Young, first female superintendent of a major city school system
1909 Dewey publishes How We Think
1909 Oxford and Working-Class Education: A report on the university-'workpeople' relationship
1909 Credit system of 120 hours measures secondary school attainment: The Carnegie Unit is born
1909 Fircroft College offers residential education for workers in the UK


Some significant events in this period
1910s The Institutionalization of Industrial Education in Black Rural Schools
1910 Adelaide Hoodless, co-founder of the Women's Institute and one of Canada's most creative social reformers, dies at age 53
1910 Justo Sierra opens the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)
1910 Leo Tolstoy, who had opened 16 pioneering progressive schools for peasants in Yasnaya Polyana, dies at age 82

1910 Marechal Candido Rondon instructs his troops: “Die if you must, but never kill”

1910 Emma Goldman and others found the Ferrer Modern School in New York
1911 Norman Bethune becomes a teacher-labourer at Frontier College  
1911 Edouard Claparède publishes Experimental Pedagogy and the Psychology of the Child
1911 In The Child and the State, Margaret McMillan argues that schools discriminate against working class children

1911 Sigmund Freud v. Alfred Adler

1911 Ferdinand Buisson publishes Nouveau dictionnaire de pédagogie et d’instruction primaire

1911 Industrialist Richard Teller Crane dismisses teaching of humanities: “No one with a taste for literature has the right to be happy; only men entitled to happiness are those who are useful.”

1911 Mexican schoolteacher Otilio Montaño introduces Emiliano Zapata to the works of Kropotkin
1912 Janusz Korczak begins innovative educational programs in Polish  orphanage
1912 Norman Bethune goes to Frontier College as a literacy teacher and a lumberjack
1912 In Education: A First Book, Edward Thorndike extends his theory of animal intelligence to human learning
1912 Louis W. Stern develops the concept of IQ (intelligence quotient)
1912 Claparède creates Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau, precursor of the International Bureau of Education
1912 Universidad Popular Mexicana provides free liberal humanist education to workers and general public
1913 Vygotsky loses bet with sister when admitted to Moscow university  
1913 In Educational Psychology, Edward Thorndike disagrees with Rousseau and his child-centered followers
1914 Paul Monroe publishes Cyclopedia of Education and Principles of Secondary Education
1914 European youth learn to live, play and sing together; next day, they kill each other: The short truce of Christmas
1914 New York University begins training of “teachers for the feebleminded”
1914 Popular educator Manuel Dimech, founder of 'Circle of the enlightened', arrested in Malta and sent to exile
1914 Margaret Naumburg promotes art therapy in Walden School
1914 Richard Tawney publishes An experiment in democratic education
1915 Nadezhda Krupskaia writes Public Education and Democracy
1915 Scott Nearing is dismissed by the University of Pennsylvania: a test of academic freedom
1915 Rules for Female Teachers
1915 Led by John Dewey, American Association of University Professors (AAUP) addresses academic freedom in Declaration of Principles
1915 Richard Buckminster Fuller expelled again from Harvard University for "irresponsibility and lack of interest"
1915 University of Toronto pressured to fire Dean of Forestry Berhanrd Fernow and other professors of German descent
1916 Lewis Terman and The Measurement of Intelligence
1916 American Federation of Teachers is created, becomes first US union to accept minorities as full members, calls for equal pay for African-American teachers
1916 John Dewey publishes Democracy and Education

1916 Disaffected students from Ruskin College and socialist teacher John Maclean's found Scottish Labour College

1916 Lucy Sprague Mitchell and progressive education colleagues create Bureau of Educational Experiments, which would become the Bank Street's School for Children

1916 The American Educational Research Association (AERA) is founded

1916 In Public School Administration, Ellwood P. Cubberley argues that schools are factories in which children are raw materials to be shaped into products to meet demands of life

1917 Italian-American progressive educator Angelo Patri publishes Schoolmaster of the Great City

1917 School inspector Elizardo Pérez meets indigenous educator Avelino Siñani: the clandestine schools of Warisata in Bolivia

1917 Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act promotes education in agriculture, trades and industries
1917 Pacifist professor James Cattell dismissed from Columbia University; colleague Charles Beard resigns in protest
1918 Students ignite democratic university reform in Cordoba, Argentina
1918 Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
1918 Beatrice Chambers founds Maltman's Green, a girls' progressive school
1918 Mary Parker Follett publishes The new state: Group organization the solution of popular government
1918 University of Toronto and unions meet: Canadian Workers Educational Association is born
1918 Kindergarten Units are organized after World War I to help refugee children in France

1918 Adult Educator and labour organizer Ginger Goodwin is killed in British Columbia, Canada

1918 Russian pedagogue M. M. Pistrak initiates experiment on school democracy and progressive education
1918 In The Curriculum, John Franklin Bobbitt applies principles of scientific management and engineering to education
1919 The Progressive Education Association is founded
1919 The Winnetka Plan
1919 Dalton School Opens
1919 Rudolph Steiner talks to prospective parents of the first Waldorf School
1919 New immigrants learn that the good citizen loves God, the Empire, and is every inch of a man 

1919 Weimar Constitution recognizes and promotes expansion of Volkshochshulen (Folk Schools) in Germany

1919 John Dewey begins a three-year work period in China

1919 International Federation of University Women (IFUW) is created with associations from eight countries

1919 British report says that adult education should be universal, lifelong and citizenship-building
1919 Bauhaus School aims at combining arts academy, crafts school, and architecture training
1919 Charles Beard, Thorstein Veblen, John Dewey and others found The New School for Social Research


Some significant events in this period
bullet 1920s Education in the 1920s
bullet 1920 Alfred Fitzpatrick, founder of Frontier College, publishes The University in Overalls
bullet 1921 The Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers opens its doors
bullet 1921 Jimmy Tompkins publishes Knowledge for the People
bullet 1921 Pacifist, feminist and labor activists found Brookwood Labor College, first residential labor college in the USA
bullet 1921 Albert Einstein, high school dropout, receives Nobel Prize
bullet 1921 La Ligue Internationale de l'Education Nouvelle is created at a congress in Calais, France
bullet 1921 International People's College opens in Denmark  
bullet 1921 A.S. Neill creates Summerhill, a self-governed school
bullet 1921 The Deans of Girls in Chicago High Schools publish Manners and conduct in schools and out
bullet 1921 La Ligue Internationale de l'Education Nouvelle is founded in Calais, France 
bullet 1922 Walter Lippmann and John Dewey debate the role of citizens in democracy
bullet 1922 Exercise and Expertise: Radio Broadcasting Promotes Health Education
bullet 1922 Upton Sinclair publishes The Goose-Step, a critical analysis of the relationship between universities and business

1922 Henry Morris pioneers community education in The Village College (Cambridgeshire)

bullet 1922 Leta Stetter Hollingworth begins pioneering work with gifted children at P.S. 165 in New York
bullet 1922 In How to Measure in Education, William A. McCall proposes 14 thesis on measuring student achievement
bullet 1923 Gentile begins Italian educational reform, a cornerstone of Mussolini's regime
bullet 1923 Mexican Secretary of Education José Vasconcelos launches Cultural Missions in rural areas

1923 The Hohenrodter Bund: A new educational perspective in the Weimar Republic

bullet 1924 In pioneering effort, radio station KYW and the YMCA broadcast health education program
bullet 1924 Soviet Troika Alexander Luria, Lev Vygotsky and Alexei Leontiev develop foundations of cultural psychology and activity theory
bullet 1925 Scopes' Monkey Trial
bullet 1925 At Laurel Falls summer camp for girls, Lillian Smith nurtures anti-racist education and social justice
bullet 1925 Foundations of Method, by William Kilpatrick, becomes most popular text in teacher education programs
bullet 1924 Freinet promotes student newspapers as learning tools
bullet 1924 Max Wertheimer gives famous lecture on Gestalt Theory at the Kant Society in Berlin
bullet 1925 Pierce v. Society of Sisters
bullet 1925 Lillian Smith nurtures anti-racist education and social justice at Laurel Falls summer camp for girls  
bullet 1926 Eduard Lindeman publishes The Meaning of Adult Education
bullet 1926 Antonio Gramsci founds the Ustica Prison School, where he teaches and studies  
bullet 1926 Institute of Child Study (ICS) Laboratory School established at the University of Toronto

1927 Children’s education and community life: Peter Petersen and the Jenaplan Schools

1927 Alexander Meiklejohn launches the Experimental College to help develop critical and involved citizens
bullet 1927 For academics, teaching is more important than research: American Historical Association
bullet 1928 University extension for social change: The Antigonish Movement
bullet 1928 Founding of Freinet's Public Educator's Co-operative
bullet 1928 E. Thorndike responds to W. James: Adults over 25 can learn!
bullet 1928 Left-handed student Henry Tetrault is forced by teachers to write with right hand
bullet 1928 First Congress of Teachers of the Americas held in Buenos Aires, first step towards creation of Confederacion de Educadores Americanos
bullet 1928 University extension for social change: The Antigonish Movement
bullet 1929 National University of Mexico is granted institutional autonomy
bullet 1929 Wooden and Mort publish 'Supervised Correspondence Study for High School Pupils', one of the first studies on distance education
bullet 1929 Basil Yeaxlee publishes the first book on Lifelong Education 
bullet 1929 Margaret Mead publishes Coming of Age in Samoa
bullet 1929 International Bureau of Education (IBE), first intergovernmental organization concerned with education 


Some significant events in this period
1930 Schools blamed for juvenile crime: Westchester Grand jury says they fail to teach morals and character
1930 Eleanor Roosevelt publishes Good Citizenship: The Purpose of Education
1930 Dewey criticizes the practices of progressive educators
1930 The Eight Year Study Begins
1930 First graduate program in adult education opens at Teachers College, Columbia University
1931 Jane Addams, founder of the Hull-House, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
1931 Lemon Grove Incident
1931 Rosario Vera Peñaloza creates pedagogical museum to connect different curriculum subjects
1932 Myles Horton creates the Highlander Research and Education Center
1932 Teacher contract: "I promise not to fall in love, to become engaged or secretly married"  
1932 George Counts publishes Dare the School Build a New Social Order?
1932 W. Waller publishes The Sociology of Teaching, a pioneering analysis of the teaching culture
1933 Führer-rector Heidegger applies racial cleansing laws at Freiburg University
1933 Ruth Kotinsky publishes Adult Education and The Social Scene
1933 In 'The Mis-education of the Negro', Carter Woodson outlines the basis for Afrocentric education
1933 National Survey of the Education of Teachers
1933 First Publication of the International Yearbook on Education
1933 Nazi regime introduces "racial science'" in the school curriculum
1933 Black track star Jesse Owens admitted to Ohio State University; three years later wins four gold medals at "Hitler Olympics"

1933 The New School launches University in Exile to provide a haven for scholars and artists persecuted by Nazism

1934 Mexican constitution proclaims socialist education
1934 People's Institute (Cooper Union, New York) closes its doors
1934 Arnold Gessel publishes Atlas of Infant Behavior
1934 Getulio Vargas includes education chapter in new constitution, creates Ministry of Education and Health
1934 William Bagley, founder of essentialism, critiques pragmatism and progressive education in Education and Emergent Man
1935 Dewey advocates cooperative intelligence and a socialized economy in Liberalism and Social Action
1935 Irene Parlby, one of the "famous five," first woman to be granted an honorary degree from the University of Alberta
1935 Anton Makarenko publishes Pedagogicheskaya Poema (translated as The Road to Life, an Epic of Education)
1936 Jean Piaget publishes La naissance de l'intelligence chez l'enfant
1936  Maria Montessori publishes The Secret of Childhood

1936 Jessie Owens and Lutz Lang embrace, teach a lesson on the power of humanity to rise above prejudice and hatred

1936 Nobel-Prize Robert Millikan advises against hiring of a woman in the physics department at Duke University  
1937 Mexico's Ministry of Education forbids boleros of Agustín Lara in schools because lyrics may corrupt children

1937 At Wardha conference, Gandhi argues that Indian education system is wasteful and harmful, outlines his educational philosophy

1937 Conservatives challenge reconstructionists: “We want no teachers who say there are two sides to every question”

1938 Textbooks, business pressures, and censorship: Harold Rugg and the Robey investigation

1938 Paul Erdös, one of the brightest and most productive mathematicians of the 20th century, forced to leave Princeton because he is considered “uncouth and unconventional”

1938 "Were we Guinea Pigs?" Graduating secondary students discuss progressive education approaches
1938 Math teacher Harold Fawcett publishes The Nature of Proof, an ethnographic study of school practice
1938 Hitler makes homeschooling illegal in Germany
1938 B.F. Skinner publishes The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis
1938 Archambault Report proposes that prisons focus on rehabilitation, not punishment
1938 Lloyd Gaines v. Canada, a step toward desegregation in education
1939 Adult educator Moses Coady publishes Masters of Their Own Destiny
1939 Goodbye Mr. Chips, a film about a teacher in a British boarding school
1939 The Springfield Plan, an innovative program of intercultural education and democratic citizenship, is launched in Massachusetts
1939 More than 30,000 Spaniard children forced into exile by Franco regime


Some significant events in this period
bullet 1940 Bertrand Russell unwelcome to teach in New York
bullet 1940 Sidney Mitchell publishes 'Supervised Correspondence Study'
bullet 1940 Korean girls abducted from schools by Japanese soldiers to become comfort women in military bases
bullet 1940 Mexico City College (aka "Gringo College") begins operations; later becomes Universidad de las Americas-Puebla
bullet 1940 Historian Marc Bloch declines academic appointments abroad and joins the French resistance against Nazi occupation

1940 Ismail Hakki Tonguç and colleagues launch The Village Institutes, an innovative experiment in teacher training in rural Turkey

bullet 1940 Radical education and community organizing for social change: Saul Alinsky and the Industrial Areas Foundation

1941 Watson Thomson, first director of Saskatchewan’s Division of Adult Education: education for critical dialogue, co-operativism and liberatory social change

bullet 1941 Kunihiko Hashida issues Citizens' School Ordinance in Japan's elementary education
bullet 1941 The rural teacher as housekeeper
bullet 1941 Kurt Hahn starts Outward Bound, the first and most recognized wilderness education organization in the world
bullet 1942 Anne Frank leaves school, goes into hiding and starts writing her diary
bullet 1942 Harvard Trade Union Program, first university program for developing labour leadership in North America
bullet 1942 Student Sophie Scholl distributes leaflets against the Nazis at the University of Munich: "Somebody, after all, had to make a start", she said.
bullet 1942 Rewi Alley founds Bailie Schools to assist the Gung Ho cooperative movement in China 
bullet 1942 Librarian Clara Breed helps Japanese-American kids sent to prison camps
bullet 1943 "España nuestra", a textbook to inculcate fascism among elementary school children during Franco's regime
bullet 1943 Walt Disney produces "Education for Death", an anti-Nazi propaganda short film based on Gregor Ziemers' book

1943 Mondragón: José María Arizmendi creates polytechnic school, ingnites successful co-operative movement


1943 Adult education for social change in the USA: the Thomas Jefferson School of Social Science (New York) and the California Labor School


1943 Sylvia Mendez, 8, not allowed to enroll at California school because of dark skin and Hispanic surname

bullet 1943 Jehovah's Witnesses not obliged to salute the flag (West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette)
bullet 1943 The Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) releases Manifesto
bullet 1943 "Ignorance of U.S. History Shown by College Freshmen,” says the New York Times
bullet 1944 GI Bill of Rights
bullet 1944 British Education Act reshapes the educational system of England and Wales
bullet 1944 Gunnar Myrdal publishes An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy

1944 “Children of the big city may well envy these youngsters”: Education In Fordlandia, a rubber plantation in the Amazon forest established by Henry Ford

bullet 1945 In 17 Educadores de América, Uruguayan teacher Jesualdo Sosa challenges Ponce's reproductionist approach

1945 “Color Prejudice Must Go": University of Toronto students picket ice rink after 2 boys face racial discrimination

bullet 1945 Loris Malaguzzi and the Reggio Emilia approach to kindergarden
bullet 1945 Miguel Soler creates in Uruguay the first 'Nucleo Experimental de La Mina', an innovative approach to rural education
bullet 1945 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural (UNESCO) formally established by 37 countries
bullet 1945 The Harvard Report

1945 Uruguayan educator Julio Castro and 20 students organize first pedagogical mission to Caraguatá

bullet 1946 The T-Group brings a participatory approach to workplace training
bullet 1946 National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) is launched in the UK 
bullet 1946 Emmi Pickler opens Loczy Institute for Orphans in Budapest
bullet 1946 Ellen Wilkinson persuades UK parliament to pass free milk act   
bullet 1946 Benjamin Spock publishes Baby and Child Care, sparking a child rearing revolution
bullet 1946 School of the Americas starts activities in Panama to train Latin American military in the art of war
bullet 1946 Beauty-school teacher Viola Desmond refuses to move from her seat in a movie theatre in Nova Scotia, Canada
bullet 1947 Gandhi passes the 'Seven Blunders That Lead to Violence' to his grandson
bullet 1947 Unesco publishes 'Universities in Need'

1947 Humanistic educator Vasily Sukhomlinsky becomes principal of Pavlyshskaya Secondary School

bullet 1947 International Federation of Workers Educational Association is created
bullet 1947 Good school not about examination successes, but about providing children with security, graciousness and freedom, says Advisory Council on Education in Scotland
bullet 1947 Roby Kidd becomes first Canadian citizen to earn doctorate in adult education
bullet 1947 Mendez v. Westminster: Segregation of Mexican-American students into separate schools ruled unconstitutional
bullet 1947 Doomsday Clock, a pedagogical tool to create public awareness of humanity's path to self-destruction
bullet 1948 In Walden Two, B.F. Skinner challenges traditional education, proposes lifelong learning process where people freely choose what they want to learn
bullet 1948 Education is a human right, should promote peace: Article 26 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights
bullet 1948 Cambridge University finally opens its full degrees to women
bullet 1949 Berkeley Professor Edward Tolman is fired after refusing to sign Loyalty Oath
bullet 1949 The first world conference on adult education (CONFINTEA) is held in Elsinore
bullet 1949 Educational Revolution Begins in China
bullet 1949 Ralph W. Tyler publishes Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction
bullet 1949 European meeting on education of troubled children and youth is held in the aftermath of war, igniting the International Association of Social Educators
bullet 1949 Norman McLaren produces filmstrips drawn directly on film for health education in China

1949 Becoming a painter at the age of 76: self-taught artist Grandma Moses awarded honorary doctoral degree by Russell Sage College

bullet 1949 Japan's Social Education Law promotes lifelong learning in community cultural centres called Kominkan  


Some significant events in this period
1950 Bruno Bettelheim publishes Love is Not Enough: The Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children

1950 Ivan Dixon graduates from Lincoln Academy, a refuge for black students during segregation; “that school saved his life”, daughter recalls

1950 UNESCO Program to provide education to Palestinian refugees begins
1950 Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) demands a guarantee of equal access to hotels, public transportation and restaurants for African American members to cities wishing to host conferences.
1951 In The Social System, Talcott Parsons explains the role of education as a socializing agency
1951 Harvard debate: "Can We Afford Academic Freedom?"
1951 Latin American Fundamental Education Centre (CREFAL), is established in Pátzcuaro, Mexico 
1951 Creation of the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) in Hamburg, Germany
1951 Max Beverman heads University of Illinois Committee on School Mathematics, leads New Math Movement
1952 Isabel Wilson, Roby Kidd and the Citizens' Forum controversy
1952 Peace educator Danilo Dolci begins fasting in Sicilia, Italy
1953 The Function of the Public School in Dealing with Religion
1953 Kingley Amis publishes Lucky Jim, first modern satire about the academic world
1953 Math teaching and wooden blocks: Cuisenaire rods move from a classroom in Belgium to the rest of the world
1953 Bantu Education Act adopts Nazi ideas; South African apartheid regime increases discrimination against black students

1953 In Educational Wastelands: A retreat from learning in our public schools, Arthur Bestor Jr. complains about declining educational standards

1954 First conference on Education and Anthropology is held in California
1954 Gordon Allport publishes The Nature of Prejudice  
1954 Brown v Board of Education
1954 Colombian soldiers shoot at peaceful demonstration of university students; thirteen killed
1954 Cairo Conference on Free and Compulsory Education in the Arab Countries of the Middle East
1955 Laubach Literacy Association is founded
1955 In her 70s, Welthy Honsinger Fisher begins literacy work: World Literacy of Canada is founded
1955 The Blackboard Jungle, first Hollywood movie on school violence
1955  Father José María Vélaz founds Fe y Alegría, an international movement to promote social change through popular education
1955 International Review of Education is launched
1955 Rosa Parks and Septima Clark attend Highlander workshop
1955 Mattachine Society educates the public on homosexuality and tolerance in New York
1955 Rudolph Flesch publishes Why Johnny Can't Read
1955 Inherit the Wind, a play on the "monkey trial" of high school teacher John Scopes, opens on Broadway
1955 In The Role of Government in Education, Milton Friedman introduces the idea of school vouchers
1956 The Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) is founded
1956 The beginning of the Seattle Longitudinal Study on changes in mental abilities
1956 Gilberto Freyre addresses women rural teachers in Northeast Brazil
1956 Benjamin Bloom publishes Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals
1956 Fourth grader Kareem Abdul-Jabbar punished by peers for "acting white"

1956 American Student Assistance (ASA), first national student loan guarantee agency

1957 Little Rock Nine come to school 
1957 Martin Luther King speaks at Highlander
1957 Launching of Sputnik I in Soviet Union generates education reform in the United States
1957 Female students disguise as men to attend John F. Kennedy campus lecture  
1957 Professor E. Franklin Frazier reprimanded for carrying books in a black vocational college
1957 South Africa withdraws from UNESCO
1957 Venezuelan students' strike sparks national movement against dictatorship of Marcos Perez Jiménez
1957 Luis F. Iglesias reflects on his teaching experience in La Escuela Rural Unitaria

1958 French teacher Fernand Oury promotes "school of the people", founds Institutional Pedagogy

1958  National Defense Education Act passed in the United States
1958 Life Magazine compares educational systems in the USA and the Soviet Union
1958 In his last publication, Henri Wallon analyzes Rousseau's educational principles in a preface to Emile
1959 John Goodlad proposes "nongraded" schools
1959 National policy of free textbooks for all Mexican schoolchildren 
1959 Roby Kidd publishes How Adults Learn  
1959 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) conducts pilot twelve-country study
1959 International project on the evaluation of educational achievement
1959 Nikita Khruschev admits difficulties in labour forecasting, even in a centrally planned economy

1959 MBA programs are "vocational" in content and "indefensible" in quality: The Ford Foundation and the Gordon-Howell Report

1959 MBA programs troubled by high enrolments and low academic quality: The Carnegie Foundation and the Pierson Report

1959 Gap between sciences and humanities major hindrance to solving societal problems, claims C.P. Snow in The Two Cultures




Some significant events in this period
1960s The Sixties and Head Start
1960 The second world conference on adult education is held in Montreal
1960 Canada passes the Technical and Vocational Training Assistance Act 
1960 Karachi meeting: Unesco adopts plan to extend free and compulsory primary education in Asia
1960 Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education
1960 Hollywood releases 'Where the Boys Are', the quintessential college spring-break movie
1960 Theology student James Lawson expelled from Vanderbilt University for teaching Gandhi’s non-violence philosophy to civil rights movement

1960 In The ‘cooling-out’ function in higher education, Burton Clark explores gap between encouragement to achieve and limited opportunities

1961 Theodore W. Schultz publishes Investment in Human Capital
1961 Jerome Bruner, one of the architects of Head Start, publishes The Process of Education
1961 Cuba launches massive literacy campaign 
1961 David McClelland publishes The Achieving Society
1961 Lawrence Cremin publishes The Transformation of the School
1961 Buckminster Fuller proposes the World Peace Game to learn cooperatively social problem solving
1961 McDonald's starts first corporate university
1962 In Education and the Cult of Efficiency Raymond Callahan examines the adoption of business values and practices in public schools at the dawn of the century 
1962 Philippe Aries publishes Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life 
1962 Paul Goodman publishes Compulsory Miseducation and Community of Scholars

1962 Do preschool programs make a difference in adult life? The Perry Preschool Project begins

1962 Political education and peace activism through the arts: Bread and Puppet Theatre is born in New York

1962 In letter entitled On The Mathematics Curriculum Of The High School, 64 mathematicians criticize New Math movement
1962 Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishad (KSSP), a massive people’s science movement, is born in India
1962 Engel v Vitale: State cannot mandate prayer in school, Supreme Court rules  
1962 Two killed, many injured in riots as James Meredith is enrolled as the first black student at the University of Mississippi
1962 Retired school teachers start the Institute for Retired Professionals, a community of peer-learners  
1962 The Students for a Democratic Society issue the Port Huron Statement
1963 In Culture Against Man, anthropologist Jules Henry questions educational institutions
1963 Desegregation of the University of Alabama
1963 Almond and Verba publish The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations
1963 Stanley Milgram publishes Behavioral Study of Obedience
1963 Carole Pateman goes to Ruskin College 
1963 In Teacher, Sylvia Ashton-Warner describes her experimental educational methods in Maori schools
1963 Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)
1963 Tenured professor and Chair of History Department Howard Zinn fired from Spelman College due to civil rights activities
1963 National Council for Teachers of English says study of grammar does not benefit writing

1963 Abington School District v. Schempp: Bible reading and prayer in public schools is unconstitutional

1963 Pablo Latapi founds Centro de Estudios Educativos, one of the first educational research centres in Latin America
1964 French immersion program begins in a Canadian public school, starting a new model of second language acquisition [pdf]
1964 Civil Rights Act
1964 The Economic Opportunity Act
1964 Seymour Martin Lipset begins his contribution to the study of student movements with publication of "University Students and Politics in Underdeveloped Countries"
1964 Tom Paxton records the song What did you learn in school today? 
1964 White and black teachers associations in the U.S. decide to merge  
1964 Gary Becker publishes Human Capital
1964 Berkeley student rebellion over free speech
1964 Benigno Cáceres, who abandonded school at age 12, publishes Histoire de l'éducation populaire
1964 John Holt publishes How Children Fail
1964  Education and the civil rights movement: the Mississippi Freedom Schools
1965 The Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the 'War on Poverty' and Title I
1965 Affirmative Action becomes law in the USA
1965 Tinker v. Des Moines: Students' freedom of expression in schools during the Vietnam War
1965 Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) is created to undertake graduate programs, research, and field development
1965 First "teach-in" held at University of Michigan: New tool for public education is born
1965 Higher Education Act is passed in the United States

1965 Saburo Ienaga takes Japanese government to court over censorship of history textbooks

1965 First Vietnam "teach-in" held at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, creating new tool for public education and mobilization
1965 Selma schoolgirls Sheyann Webb (8) and Rachel West Nelson (9) take a practical lesson on democracy and civil rights
1966 Aymara student Evo Morales starts school, but abandons soon because does not understand Spanish
1966 In Education and Society in Tudor England, Joan Simon dismantles a key assumption of English historiography
1966 Southern Appalachia students gather local histories, publish magazine: the Foxfire Project
1966 Challenge for Change (Fogo Island), a participatory media approach to citizenship education
1966 Chinese cultural revolution brings about massive educational change  
1966 The Coleman Report
1966  La Noche de los Bastones Largos: Police repression at the Universidad de Buenos Aires
1966 In The Tacit Dimension, Michael Polanyi makes a pioneering contribution to the study of experiential learning
1966 All Hallows High School starts mandatory reading period, extracurricular activities and community service, achieves 100% completion rate
1966 Kurt Hahn's 80th birthday celebration: the Round Square School Movement is born
1967 Sidney Poitier, the student of The Blackboard Jungle, is now a teacher in To Sir with Love
1967 Children of Barbiana (Italy) publish Letter to a Teacher, a critical analysis of public school
1967 Project Follow Through, one of the largest educational experiments to enhance the achievement of poor students, is launched
1967 Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann publish The Social Construction of Reality
1967 Experimental World Literacy Program (EWLP)

1967 Sigmon and Ramsey coin the term “Service Learning” to describe an educational approach that combines community service and academic learning

1967 Blau and Duncan develop model to explain role of socioeconomic status on educational attainment

1967 Constructivist educator Seymour Papert ridiculed for suggesting that children could use computers as learning tools; then he creates LOGO programming language

1967 Oslo Experimental High School opens its doors in Norway

1967 Albert Shanker jailed for organizing a teachers' strike for smaller classes In New York
1967 Dr. Charles Mercieca founds the International Associations of Educators for World Peace (IAEWP)
1967 One-room Freeman School, center of life in small rural community for a century, is closed
1967 Jeanne Chall publishes Learning to Read: The Great Debate 
1968 Rosenthal and Jacobson publish Pygmalion in the Classroom
1968 Mexican students killed in the Tlatelolco Massacre
1968 Chicano Students Blow Outs
1968 Bilingual Education Act
1968 Paulo Freire publishes Pedagogy of the Oppressed
1968 Architectural Barriers Act orders buildings to be modified for handicapped access
1968 Learning for Living (aka Hall-Dennis report), advocates progressive education in schools
1968 Student arrests in Paris bring country to standstill: French May begins 
1968 Self-governed, Sudbury Valley School begins in Massachusetts
1968 From segregated schools to just schools: Green v. School Board of New Kent County
1968 Rochdale College, an experiment in alternative student-run education and co-operative living in Toronto, Canada

1968 Student Prosenjit Poddar meets Tatiana Tarasoff at Berkeley, confides to campus psychologist that he will kill her: Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California

1968 Philip Coombs publishes The world educational crisis
1968 Robert M. Hutchins publishes The Learning Society
1968 Jane Elliot teaches "blue-eyes/brown-eyes" lesson in discrimination to grade 3 students
1968 International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) facilitates international mobility of students preparing for university

1968 In The Dissenting Academy, Theodore Roszak claims that the university is “the handmaiden of official society”

1969 The U.S. Senate issues Indian Education: A National Tragedy - A National Challenge
1969 Carl Rogers publishes Freedom to Learn
1969 Students and auto-workers revolt against military dictatorship in Argentina: El Cordobazo

1969 At AERA conference, Joseph Schwab launches The Practical movement in curriculum studies

1969 Marjorie Boxall creates nurture groups in early childhood education
1969 Edgar Schein publishes Process Consultation: Its Role in Organization Development
1969 Chicano Students launch MEChA
1969 First broadcast of Sesame Street  
1969 Leo Buscaglia teaches Love 1A at the University of Southern California
1969 Student revolt, state response, radical faculty: the Centre universitaire expérimental de Vincennes
1969 The Black Papers: a critique to the excesses of progressive education
1969 McMaster University introduces problem-based learning in medical education


Some significant events in this period
bullet 1970 David Ausubel & Edmund Sullivan publish Theory and problems of child development
bullet 1970s Affirmative Action
bullet 1970 Ray Rist publishesThe Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education
bullet 1970 Ivan Illich publishes Deschooling Society

1970 Linguistic bias in IQ tests and special education placements: Diana v. California State Board of Education

bullet 1970 Malcolm Knowles publishes The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy vs. Pedagogy
bullet 1970 Four students are killed at Kent State University
bullet 1970 Carole Pateman argues that the major function of participatory democracy is educative
bullet 1971 The way we go to school: the exclusion of children in Boston, a powerful indictment of US education
bullet 1971 Augusto Boal publishes Theatre of the Oppressed, a creative participatory pedagogy
bullet 1971 Christian Baudelot and Roger Establet publish L'École Capitaliste en France
bullet 1971 The first email message is sent, opening new possibilities for distance education
bullet 1971 U.K. Open University opens its doors
bullet 1971 Allen Tough publishes The Adult's Learning Projects
bullet 1971 John Hurst teaches course on participatory environmental education at UC Berkeley
bullet 1971 Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education: School busing to correct racial imbalances

1971 Georges Lapassade publishes L'Autogestion pédagogique


1971 Environmental activist Chico Mendes becomes involved in popular education in the Amazon forest, at a school in Xapuri

bullet 1971 IEA comparative study of civic education is conducted in nine countries 
bullet 1971 Do the humanities humanize? George Steiner challenges key educational axiom
bullet 1971 In Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses, Althusser argues that schools play key role in reproducing capitalist relations

1971 Mexico launches innovative community education in small rural communities: CONAFE is born

bullet 1971 Basil Bernstein publishes the first volume of Class, codes and control
bullet 1971 Michael Young edits Knowledge and Control, launching the British 'New Sociology of Education'
bullet 1971 Greenpeace, a leader for environmental education, is launched

1971 Federal Judge William Justice: compensatory educational programs required to address equity gap in Texas

bullet 1971 Michael Katz publishes Class, bureaucracy and schools: the illusion of educational change in America
bullet 1971 Serrano v. Priest case declares property tax-based school finance system unfair and unconstitutional
bullet 1972 Canada's Native Indian Brotherhood releases Indian Control of Indian Education  
bullet 1972 The third world conference on adult education is held in Tokyo
bullet 1972 Edgar Faure publishes Learning to be
bullet 1972 Title IX bans sex discrimination in educational institutions
bullet 1972 Christopher Jencks et al. publish Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America
bullet 1973 Sexism in school and society, written by Sadker and Sadker, returned to bookstores by frustrated customers
bullet 1973 San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez
bullet 1973 Rehabilitation Act bans discrimination on the basis of disability
bullet 1973 Roby Kidd founds the International Council for Adult Education
bullet 1973 Weekend College Program at Wayne State University allows working adults to pursue interdisciplinary studies 
bullet 1973 Maxine Greene publishes Teacher as Stranger: Educational Philosophy for the Modern Age

1973 Uruguayan Teacher Beatriz Etchepare Mántaras jailed 810 days for burning flag in school


1973 Higher education for the retired: The first University of the Third Age (U3A) starts activities in France


1973 Colegio Cesar Chavez and the Chicano struggle for educational self-determination

bullet 1973 Unesco publishes Huberman's Understanding change in education
bullet 1973 Basil Bernstein publishes Class and pedagogies: Visible and invisible
bullet 1973 Pinochet soldiers burn How to Read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic, by Dorfman and Mattelart
bullet 1973 Unesco publishes George Parkyn's report 'Towards a Conceptual Model of Lifelong Education'
bullet 1974 Creation of Escuela Nueva in Colombia
bullet 1974 The Otero v. Mesa County Valley School District No. 51 case
bullet 1974 Trilateral Commission recommends program to lower job expectations of those who receive a college education
bullet 1974 Power and Kohlberg open Cluster School in the U.S., a 'just community' ruled through participatory democracy
bullet 1974 Matthew Lipman launches Philosophy for Children (P4C) at Montclair State University
bullet 1974 Education key to rehabilitate young offenders: Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

1974 FUNDAEC (Fundación para la Aplicación y Enseñanza de las Ciencias) begins innovative educational program to promote participatory development in Colombia


1974 Lau v. Nichols: language-based discrimination is a proxy for national origin discrimination

bullet 1974 Isabelle Liberman et al. publish 'Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child', an influential work in the field of reading acquisition
bullet 1975 Elderhostel launches its first programmes  
bullet 1975 Age Discrimination Act - Bars discrimination in hiring or firing of older persons
bullet 1975 Budd Hall coordinates a special issue of Convergence on Participatory Research, sparking international network
bullet 1975 Persepolis Declaration adopted by International Symposium for Literacy in Iran
bullet 1975 PL94-142: free appropriate public education for all handicapped children

1975 Vicente 'Sahe' Reis and other popular educators begin literacy campaign in the mountains of Timor-Leste 

bullet 1975 Tom Lovett publishes Adult education, community development and the working class
bullet 1976 Questioning the function of schooling: Bowles and Gintis publish Schooling in Capitalist America
bullet 1976 Ronald Dore publishes The Diploma Disease in response to 'qualification escalation'  
bullet 1976 Ten thousand schoolchildren protest against segregated education: The Soweto uprising
bullet 1976 Arvo Juola raises concerns over grade inflation in higher education
bullet 1976  Educator Monica Mignone is abducted and disappeared by military in Argentina

1976 No more classrooms, tests or age-based groupings: José Pacheco introduces radical changes to Escola da Ponte in Vila das Aves (Portugal)

bullet 1976 June and Gerald Groden use relaxation and imagery in the education of children with autism
bullet 1976 Uruguayan teacher Didaskó Pérez receives visit of daughter in jail 
bullet 1976 Institute for People's Education and Action (IPEA): learner-led education as a tool for community organizing and democratic change
bullet 1976 Jerome Karabel and AH Halsey publish Power and Ideology in Education
bullet 1976 La noche de los lapices: Six adolescents who demanded a student busfare are 'disappeared' by the military in Argentina
bullet 1976 Bruno Bettelheim publishes The Uses of Enchantment : The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales
bullet 1976 First World Assembly of the International Council for Adult Education is held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
bullet 1976 Ivan Illich and Ettiene Verne publish Imprisoned in the Global Classroom
bullet 1976 In Democratic Classroom: Mistake or Misnomer, Mary Anne Raywid distinguishes 'democratic education' and 'education for democracy'
bullet 1976 Church Committee reveals CIA operations in universities  
bullet 1977 Paul Willis publishes Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs

1977 Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura publishes Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change

bullet 1977 In Discipline and Punish, Michel Foucault compares schools and prisons

1977 Adult educator John Ohliger founds Basic Choices, "a center for clarifying political and social options"

bullet 1977 Joseph S. Renzulli proposes three-ring model of giftedness
bullet 1977 Parti Quebecois enacts Bill 101, restricting access to education in English in Quebec  
bullet 1977 The Ulyssean Society is created to encourage older adults' learning
bullet 1977 The Skills Exchange of Toronto is founded
bullet 1977 “Starting from Nina: The politics of learning”, a film inspired by Paulo Freire's visit to Toronto
bullet 1978 International Standing Conference for the History of Education (ISCHE) is founded
bullet 1978 Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
bullet 1978 Jack Mezirow publishes Perspective Transformation 
bullet 1978 Northern College (UK), a leading exponent of residential and community adult education, is established  
bullet 1978 Departing from traditional medical approach, Alma Ata Declaration acknowledges importance of education to protect and promote health

1978 La Verneda-Sant Martí, a democratic learning community in post-Franco Catalonia

bullet 1979 Iranian Islamic Revolution ends co-education and secularism, produces “big brain drain”  
bullet 1979 Publication of the Terminology of Adult Education
bullet 1979 Father Bruno Hussar creates School for Peace in Neve Shalom/ Wahat al Salam, Israel
bullet 1979 Unesco publishes Learning and Working

1979 Teacher and historian Alain Choppin founds Emmanuelle, a research network on school and university textbooks

bullet 1979 Jimmy Carter creates United States Department of Education


Some significant events in this period
1980 Jean Anyon publishes "Social Class and the Hidden Curriculum of Work" 
1980 The first Neighbours' School (Escuela de Vecinos) starts in Venezuela, with the motto 'Citizenship Education for Participation'

1980 Education to promote understanding, tolerance, cooperation and peaceful coexistence: Unesco creates University for Peace in Costa Rica

1980 Mortimer Adler publishes The Paideia Proposal 

1980 Arrowsmith School treats learning disabilities by strengthening weak brain capacities

1980 Freeman Butts publishes The Revival of Civic Learning
1980 Mary Swanson starts AVID program (Advancement Via Individual Determination) in high schools

1980 Term ‘critical pedagogy’ coined during a discussion in the OISE cafeteria

1980 After death of student Chuck Stenzel (Alfred University), New York becomes first state to make hazing illegal
1980 Educating Rita, a play by William Russell about class culture and liberal education
1980 Petrona Perez Basilio learns to read and write in Nicaragua's literacy crusade
1981 Patricia Cross publishes Adults as Learners, a pioneer study on barriers to learning
1981 REPEM (Red de Educación Popular entre Mujeres) starts its activities
1981 Palestinian and Jewish students and teachers learn together in 'School for Peace'
1981 Derek Heater and Judith Gillespie publish Political Education in Flux
1981 Knight and Sims v. the state of Alabama: 25 years of litigation to desegregate higher education
1981 The Catcher in the Rye is both most censored book and second most taught book in public schools in the United States

1981 Term ‘critical pedagogy’ coined during a discussion in the OISE cafeteria

1982 Dame Nita Barrow becomes President of the International Council of Adult Education
1982 HEART: An Adult Education Initiative in Neo-Conservative Jamaica
1982 Against the expectations of the Educational Testing Service, students of Bolivian teacher Jaime Escalante pass calculus exam again  

1982 Dow Chemical v. Allen: A test of academic freedom at the University of Wisconsin

1982 Lycée Autogéré de Paris (L.A.P), an experimental, self-managed public high school

1982 Michael Apple publishes Education and Power
1982 Ruth Love publishes Johnny can read -so can Jane

1982 Educators for Social Responsibility aims at promoting safe, caring and equitable schools for a more democratic and just world

1982 Plyler v. Doe: Supreme Court decides that Texas cannot deny free public schooling to immigrant students
1982 T. Cullen Davis constructs the much-circulated lists of school problems, giving life to one of the most popular urban myths of 20th century education
1982 Five Teens win the right to read: Board of Education v. Pico declares banning books from school libraries unconstitutional
1982 Betty Reardon creates the International Institutes on Peace Education (IIPE)
1982 Canadian social studies teacher Jim Keegstra dismissed for instilling anti-semitism among his students
1983 A Nation at Risk
1983 In Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner introduces the theory of multiple intelligences  
1983 Home School Legal Defense Association is established 
1983 Geoffrey Canada becomes Education Director of Harlem Children's Zone
1983 Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot publishes The Good High School: Portraits of Character and Culture

1983 University of Chicago launches Everyday Mathematics, an innovative and controversial K-6 math curriculum

1983 In Raising children: Experts, parents, and a century of advice about children, Ann Hulbert examines how parenting experts contradict each other
1984 David Kolb publishes Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development
1984 Proyecto Nasa is launched by indigenous communities in Cauca, Colombia
1984 John Goodlad publishes A place called school
1984 Regional Program for the Eradication of Illiteracy in sub-Saharan Africa
1984 National Pedagogical Congress (Argentina) begins four years of open deliberations, attracts 400,000 participants
1984 Nel Noddings publishes Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education
1985 The fourth world conference on adult education is held in Paris
1985 Barriers to Excellence: Our Children at Risk
1985 Jeannie Oakes publishes Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality
1985 BRAC begins non-formal primary education for poor children in Bangladesh
1985 Jonathan Kozol publishes Illiterate America
1985 Walter Karp publishes 'Why Johnny Can't Think: The Politics of Bad Schooling' in Harper's Magazine
1985 Mark Blaug publishes Where Are We Now in the Economics of Education?
1985 Martin Carnoy and Henry Levin publish Schooling and Work in the Democratic State
1985 Irene Morgan Kirkaldy, whose bus protest paved way for Rosa Parks, earns college degree at age 68
1985 Simon Baron-Cohen argues that children with autism appear to lack a "theory of mind" (mindblindness)
1985 Geoff Whitty publishes Sociology and School Knowledge
1985 Stanley Aronowitz and Henry Giroux publish Education Under Siege: The Conservative, Liberal, and Radical Debate over Schooling

1986 Adult educator Felix Adam founds Universidad de la Tercera Edad in Venezuela

1986 Mary Belenky et al. publish Women's Ways of Knowing
1986 Pierre Bourdieu publishes The Forms of Capital in English
1986 Robert Fulghum publishes All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten 
1986 Bellah et al. publish Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life
1986 Katimavik founder Jacques Hébert goes on hunger strike to reinstate youth program  
1986 Rafael Correa volunteers as popular educator in Zumbahua, Ecuador; "that was my real master's degree", he recalls  
1987 Edgar Schein revisits Process Consultation with a sequel
1987 Stand and Deliver tells the story of teacher Jaime Escalante in an inner city school
1987 E. D. Hirsch, Jr. publishes Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know
1987 Donald Schon publishes Educating the reflective practitioner
1987 Allan Bloom publishes The Closing of the American Mind  
1987 Shakira, 10, rejected from school choir because music teacher thinks that she sounds like a goat
1987 Case studies on the most appropriate educational approaches in special education (Unesco)
1987 First Canada-wide conference on Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR)
1987 In Au revoir les enfants, Louis Malle recounts his days at a Catholic boarding school in Nazi-occupied France
1987 Amy Gutmann publishes Democratic Education
1987 Edwards v. Aguillard: Supreme Court invalidates Louisiana's "Creationism Act," which required teaching creationism alongside evolution
1987 In Lake Wobegon, J.J. Cannell found that 90% of school systems claim their students score above average on standardized tests
1987 Raging Grannies, an innovative popular education group, is born
1987 European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (Erasmus) is launched
1987 Bahá’í Institute of Higher Education established to provide educational opportunities for oppressed religious minority in Iran
1987 Amy Gutmann publishes Democratic Education  
1988 Henry Giroux publishes Teachers as intellectuals
1988 Madeleine Grumet Publishes Bitter Milk
1988 Even Start family literacy initiative implemented in the U.S.  
1988 First deaf president of Gallaudet University named
1988 Newson and Buchbinder publish The University Means Business: Universities, Corporations, and Academic Work
1988 Gay teacher and straight student create first Gay-Straight Alliance at Concord Academy
1988 Ron Miller founds Holistic Education Review (currently Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice)
1988 Science students at University of Buenos Aires take oath to use knowledge for peace and humanity’s benefit

1988 In Transformative Education, Boyd and Myers challenge Mezirow’s transformative learning theory by highlighting emotional and spiritual dimensions of learning

1989 Participatory democracy and school governance: Local school councils are established in Chicago

1989 Annette Lareau publishes Home Advantage: Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education

1989 Naming the Moment, a Popular Education method for doing social change

1988 Should principals control content of student newspapers? Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

1989 Henry Giroux publishes Schooling for Democracy: Critical Pedagogy in the Modern Age
1989 "Turning points" report identifies problems in middle school, calls for radical reform

1989 Mike Rose publishes Lives on the Boundary, a semi-autobiographical book about the challenges faced by “remedial students”

1989 A decade after Cries From the Corridor, Peter McLaren re-examines his teaching experience in Life in Schools
1989 Salvadoran army kills rector of Jesuit university and seven others for their work on solidarity with the poor
1989 Marc Lepine kills 14 female engineering students at L'Ecole Polytechnique in Montreal
1989 Dead Poets Society makes a critique of traditional education  
1989 'Convention on the Rights of the Child' adopted by United Nations General Assembly
1989 Chinese students killed in Tiananmen Square
1989 Charol Shakeshaft publishes The Gender Gap in Research in Educational Administration
1989 Learning democracy by doing: The participatory budget of Porto Alegre 
1989 Kentucky Supreme Court declares entire education system unconstitutional  
1989 The Hillcole group is founded at the Institute for Education Policy Studies (UK)



Some significant events in this period
1990 World Conference on Education for All is held in Jomtien, Thailand
1990 First conference of literacy learners is held in Sao Paulo (version en español)
1990 News and advertisements in schools: First broadcast of Channel One  
1990 Chile launches P-900, a national program to support poor schools
1990 UNESCO 'Children of Chernobyl' Project launched

1990 Student Barack Obama becomes first African American president of Harvard Law Review

1990 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): education one of three criteria to assess Human Development Index
1990 Webster v. New Lenox: school boards have the right to prohibit teaching creationism

1990 Tim Berners-Lee connects hypertext with the internet, creates WorldWideWeb

1990 Schooling beyond "babysitting, job training or incarceration”. Theobald and Snauwaert publish The educational philosophy of Wendell Berry

1990 Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act calls to integrate vocational and academic curricula

1990 Landless Movement of Brazil (MST) begins plans to create a Popular University of Social Movements, later known as Escuela Florestan Fernandes

1990  “I am a dynamic figure”. High school student Hugh Gallagher writes unusual college application essay

1990 Suzuki Foundation begins environmental education programs to promote ecological sustainability
1991 Rosa Maria Torres sends an open letter to all school children  
1991 Jonathan Kozol Publishes Savage Inequalities
1991 University students deliver first community literacy program through Frontier College
1991 Molefi Asante publishes The Afrocentric Idea in Education
1991 The Paulo Freire Institute is created
1991 African-American educators and parents transform J.S. Chick into an African-centered school
1991 Transformative learning for sustainable living: Satish Kumar and colleagues create Schumacher College
1991 Arthur Schlesinger rejects Afrocentrism in The disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society
1991 New York Teacher of the Year John Gatto quits teaching because he is "no longer willing to hurt children"
1991 Ken Osborne publishes Teaching for Democratic Citizenship

1991 Tostan, adult education for democracy and human rights in Senegal

1991 In The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation, Jacques Rancière discusses autodidactism
1991 Grace Llewellyn publishes The teenage liberation handbook: how to quit school and get a real life and education

1991 Alan Thomas publishes Beyond Education: A New Perspective on Society’s Management of Learning

1991 Curitiba launches the  "Green Exchange" and Open University of the Environment  
1991 Dinesh D'Souza publishes Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus
1991 Dumped from his university office, mathematician Jack Edmonds meets sociologist Kenneth Westhues to understand 'academic mobbing'
1992 First Adult Learners' Week is held in the U.K.
1992 Agenda 21 calls for reorienting education towards sustainable development
1992 Ecoar Institute for Citizenship launched in Brazil to promote education for sustainable development
1992 Discovery or conquest? After 500 years, schools throughout the Americas re-examine Columbus
1992 Alexander Charter and colleagues found the International Society for Comparative Adult Education (ISCAE)

1992 “You can tell in ten seconds of silent video how a teacher will be evaluated at the end of the semester”, says Robert Rosenthal

1992: Are programs for English-language learners adequate? Miriam Flores v. Nogales Unified School District

1992 City Academy High School, first charter school in the USA, opens in Minnesota
1993 Adult educator Jane Thompson writes Learning, Liberation and Maturity: An Open Letter to Whoever's Left
1993 Transformative Learning Centre (University of Toronto) is created
1993 International Congress and World Plan of Action on Education for Human Rights and Democracy is held in Montreal

1993 Gene Glass (Arizona State University) launches Education Policy Analysis Archives (EPAA), a peer-reviewed, open access scholarly journal

1993 IHTEC promotes Global Sustainability Education and Peace Education through tourism

1993 Brenda and Wanda Henson found Camp Sister Spirit Folk School, a feminist education retreat center in Mississippi

1993 Massachusetts become first state in the USA to prohibit discrimination against public school students based on sexual orientation
1994 Noam Chomsky talks about democracy and education at Loyola University
1994 Goals 2000: Educate America Act
1994 Proposition 187 debated in California
1994 Paulo Freire publishes Pedagogy of Hope
1994 Salamanca Statement on Inclusive Education
1994 Royal Commission on Learning makes 167 recommendations for educational reform  
1994 Herrnstein and Murray publish The Bell Curve, a controversial book on intelligence and social class
1994 Marshall Fritz founds the Alliance for the Separation of School and State
1994 bell hooks publishes Teaching to Transgress, her first major book on education
1994 First KIPP school (Knowledge is Power Program) opens in Houston

1994 Rwanda genocide leaves 95,000 children orphaned, 3,000 teachers killed or forced to flee, and over 600 primary schools destroyed

1994 Richard Brosio publishes A Radical Democratic Critique of Capitalist Education
1994 Andy Hargreaves publishes 'Changing teachers, changing times'
1995 Regents of the University of California eliminate race and gender from the admissions process
1995 Rosa Maria Torres raises ten implications of children's right to basic education  
1995 First class of the Clemente course: Humanities education for the poor
1995 Mayor of Bogotá uses street theatre to educate drivers and pedestrians 
1995 Neil Postman publishes The End of Education: Redefining the Value of Schools
1995 First global teach-in held in New York City
1995 European Community launches Socrates program to promote cooperation in all areas of education
1995 Berliner and Biddle publish The manufactured crisis: myths, fraud, and the attack on America's public schools
1995 Jane Mansbridge raises research challenge: does participation make better citizens?
1995 More than IQ: Daniel Goleman publishes Emotional Intelligence
1996 Proposition 209 debated in California
1996 Hispanic Americans denied equal educational opportunity, says President's Advisory Commission
1996 George Dawson learns to read and write at the age of 98
1996 Ebonics officially recognized by school board as native language of African-American children
1996 Leaving behind a painful legacy for aboriginal peoples, the Canadian residential school program ends 
1996 Taliban regime denies access to education to Afghan girls and women
1996 Nabozny v. Podlesny challenges failure of public schools to address anti-gay abuse  
1996 In Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined, 29 authors critique Herrnstein and Murray's thesis on intelligence and social class
1996 Daloz et al. publish Common Fire, a study on why people become commited to the common good
1996 Ethical dilemmas in university research: the case of Nancy Olivieri
1996 Landless Movement in Brazil starts an itinerant school for landless children on the move

1996 Linda Pierce Picciotto publishes first book on student-led parent conferences

1996 Building caring, peaceful, and civil societies through the development of empathy in children: Canadian educator Mary Gordon launches Roots of Empathy

1996 Krasnoyarsk Center for Community Partnerships (KCCP) promotes school and classroom democratization in Siberia

1996 Teacher Mary Kay Letourneau (34) has affair with student Vili Fualaau (12), goes to jail for seven years, and marries him

1996 E.D. Hirsch Jr. publishes The Schools We Need: Why We Don't Have Them

1996 Kundapur Declaration: International Movement of Working Children calls for education system adapted to their reality

1996 President Clinton calls to end social promotion and reinstate grade repetition in U.S. schools  
1997 Unesco publishes 'Learning: the treasure within', known as the Delors Report
1997 Little Rock Nine come back to school
1997 Despite widespread opposition, Bill 160 (Education Improvement Quality Act) passes in Ontario, Canada
1997 The fifth world conference on adult education (CONFINTEA V) is held in Hamburg
1997 Argentine teachers erect the White Tent (Carpa Blanca) in front of Congress and begin a three year protest
1997 Thomas Stewart publishes Intellectural Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations
1997 Wendy Terry, high school dropout, graduates from Harvard at 50
1997 The 'Individuals with Disabilities Education Act' (IDEA) is amended
1997 Toronto Adult Students Association founded, first independent organization in Canada representing adult learners
1997 Harry Potter encourages millions of children to read amidst controversy over its content
1997 Universitas 21, a multinational consortium of 18 prominent research universities for e-education, is created
1997 Slaughter and Leslie publish Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies and the Entrepreneurial University
1997 Task Force carries out feasibility study on a University of the Arctic
1997 Early literacy crucial for developing certain brain connections, argues Fraser Mustard in The Early Years: The Real Brain Drain
1997 Shirley Steinberg and Joe Kincheloe publish Kinderculture: The corporate construction of childhood
1998 Frontier College's Beat the Street launches Picture This! A photography project with voices from street youth
1998 Unesco report ranks Cuban students first in international math and reading tests 
1998 Stephen L. Carter publishes Civility: Manners, Morals, and the Etiquette of Democracy 
1998 Stricter standards required for teachers of English as a Second Language  
1998 Carlos A. Torres publishes Education, Power and Personal Biography: Dialogues with Critical Educators
1998 First Latin American professor hired at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE/UT)
1998 Carole Hahn publishes Becoming Political: Comparative Perspectives on Citizenship Education

1998 All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education (Robinson Report) calls for broad, flexible and motivating education system in UK

1998 Reading Excellence Act is passed by U.S. Senate: direct instruction and phonics paradigm for reading instruction
1998 In The Nurture Assumption, Judith Harris argues that "parents matter less than you think and peers matter more"

1998 First “Community University” of Taiwan opens in Taipei

1998 Richard Russo publishes Straight Man, a humorous novel about academic life

1998 In The Education-Jobs Gap: Underemployment or Economic Democracy, David Livingstone exposes explanatory limits of human capital theory

1998 With 'consensus-minus-one', Katarina Tomasevski appointed as first Special Rapporteur on Right to Education of the United Nations
1999 Julius Nyerere, Tanzania's legendary teacher-President, dies at 77
1999 Family literacy programme wins Unesco award with intergenerational approach
1999 Massacre by students at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado
1999 Preuss School UCSD prepares low-income students to become citizens and scholars
1999 Stigler and Hiebert publish The Teaching Gap, a comparative study on factors influencing effective teaching

1999 The Koret Task Force on K–12 Education is established at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University

1999 Kansas Board of Education challenges Darwin's evolution theory, opens road for 'intelligent design'
1999 Highlander Center develops four assumptions and an education plan to promote democratic participation and economic justice

1998 Elba Rivera, who became literate at 18, returns to Nicaragua two decades later, creates school with ecology-centred curriculum

1999 The Immigration Act and the International Convention on the Rights of the Child: Mavis Baker v. Canada
1999 Joel Westheimer denied tenure after supporting graduate students to unionize  
1999 Oxfam report: Cost to have universal primary education equal to four days global military spending
1999 The first national learning channel of Canada is launched

1999 Edgar Morin publishes Seven complex lessons in education for the future

1999 Rate My Professors (RMP) allows university students to annonymously rate their professors online
1999 In the USA, 850,000 students are home-schooled, reports the National Household Education Surveys Program
1999 Leonela Relis' literacy method 'Yo sí puedo' links numbers to letters; after initial success, adopted by many countries
1999 Edmund O'Sullivan publishes Transformative Learning: Educational Vision for the 21st Century
2000 Ken Rowe argues that girls and boys in single-sex settings perform better than their counterparts in co-education environments
2000 Madres de Plaza de Mayo open Universidad Popular in Buenos Aires, Argentina
2000 Diane Ravitch publishes Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms
2000 French, Brazilians meet in Paris to create open learning space for social movements: the World Social Forum is born
2000 Williams v. State of California, a class action suit to demand equitable access to quality education

2000 Living Library, an educational initiative to challenge prejudice, is launched in Denmark, expands to over 30 countries

2000 Latin American statement to the World Education Forum in Dakar
2000 The Pleiades Project, a “fantasy trip” designed to inspire change in Colombian education 
2000 Diane Goodman provides new insights for educating privileged people about social justice 
2000 Scholars at Risk Network defends academic freedom and human rights of scholars worldwide  


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